# Complementary Codes

In addition to maximal-length sequences, liquid also implements complementary codes: P/N sequence pairs which have similar properties to m-sequences. A complementary code pair is one in which the sum of individual auto-correlations is identically zero for all delays except for the zero-delay which provides an auto-correlation of unity. The two codes $$\vec{a}$$ and $$\vec{b}$$ are generated recursively as


.. eqnarray
\vec{a}_{k+1} & = & \left[ \vec{a}_k \,\,\,      \vec{b}_k  \right] \\
\vec{b}_{k+1} & = & \left[ \vec{a}_k \,\,\, \bar{\vec{b}}_k \right] \\


where $$[\cdot,\cdot]$$ represents concatenation and $$\bar{(\cdot)}$$ denotes a binary inversion. [tab-sequence-ccodes] shows the first several iterations of the sequence. Notice that the sequence length doubles for each iteration, and that (with the exception of $$k=0$$ ) the first half of $$\vec{a}_k$$ and $$\vec{b}_k$$ are identical. [fig-sequence-ccodes] shows that the auto-correlation of the two sequences is non-zero for delays other than zero, but that they indeed do sum to zero.


.. table [tab-sequence-ccodes]
caption:Default complementary codes in liquid
$1$     & $\vec{a}_{0}$ = 1
& $\vec{b}_{0}$ = 0
$2$     & $\vec{a}_{1}$ = 10
& $\vec{b}_{1}$ = 11
$4$     & $\vec{a}_{2}$ = 1011
& $\vec{b}_{2}$ = 1000
$8$     & $\vec{a}_{3}$ = 10111000
& $\vec{b}_{3}$ = 10110111
$16$    & $\vec{a}_{4}$ = 10111000 10110111
& $\vec{b}_{4}$ = 10111000 01001000
$32$    & $\vec{a}_{5}$ = 10111000 10110111 10111000 01001000
& $\vec{b}_{5}$ = 10111000 10110111 01000111 10110111
$64$    & $\vec{a}_{6}$ = 10111000 10110111 10111000 01001000 10111000 10110111 01000111 10110111
& $\vec{b}_{6}$ = 10111000 10110111 10111000 01001000 01000111 01001000 10111000 01001000 Figure [fig-sequence-ccodes]. Complementary codes auto-correlation, $$n=64$$